based on novel
(55)there was public debate about the cross-ethnic casting in ...
in fact, the novel on which the film is based, authur golden's.... was also roundly criticized for its misrepresentation of the culture of Geisha, and the subject of a lawsuit
Deyu Tang et.al.,A lévy flight-based shuffled frog-leaping algorithm and itsapplications for continuous optimization problems,Applied Soft Computing 49 641–662
Shuffled frog-leaping algorithm , a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of frogs, has been widely applied to many areas for combination problems. But it is easy to fall into the local optimum especially for the continuous optimization problems. This paper proposed a novel variant of SFLA for the continuous optimization problems based on the expanded framework (called the lévy flight-based shuffled frog-leaping algorithm, LSFLA). In this new framework, the shuffling process, local search step and global search step are combined according to the exploration and exploitation mechanism. An lévy flight based attractor was adopted for the local search step, which enhance the local search ability of algorithm due to the search of short walking distance and occasionally longer walking distance. An interaction learning rule was used for the global search step, which enhances the exploration ability. In order to test the effectiveness of LSFLA, thirty benchmark functions, six real-world constrained continuous optimization problems and a real-world support vector machine parameter optimization problem were compared to the many well-known heuristic methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of our proposed algorithm is better than other algorithms for the continuous optimization problems.
I’m going to tell you more about the last course, I think it was too fast, my problem now concerns the possibility of fictions, what does it mean that fictions are possible ?
that is Leibniz point of view fictions are possibilities, that is a reason why he is objecting the case of novels to Spinoza.
of course some possibilities never exist, think about fictions that is the argument, but I consider that this id, a very simple id, fictions are possible is not that simple, what does it mean?
and I’m only considering the last point, they are not convertible with, if they were they would exist, that is the answer even by Leibniz to book it.
we know propositions about individuals, that are not compatible with our world, these propositions are those notions they are not compatible with our work for instance, and Adam as I told you at the beginning of this lecture.
this is only a vague notion, to some extent fictions should have something to do with it, a fictional a novel character should be something like this, and obstruct individual, we have the same case, some things that is possible, but not come possible with the world， however what I told you at the end of the last part of my speech, it doesn't fictions and novel characters, or something more than laws vague notions, there's something more.
why we will come back to this but why are they something more, because the northern character is not an abstract individual, it's not an isolated individual, it belongs to a system of facts to a story, so of course a noble character doesn't have an engine night number of pretty gates, as the notion of an existing being asked.
of course, however kids are something more than those vague notions, this is a very important point, if we will be a very important point understand to discover the limits, the very limits of a model point of view on fictions.
so please remember this, there is some ambiguity here, in a certain sense, the clarification provided by Leibniz implying the place of fictional possibilities, there are of course not compulsive with our world, because if such were the case, then they would gain access to existence, if they were from possible with our will then there would they would exist.
but what I want to emphasize is that, these exclusion they do not belong to the relations of compressibility， these exclusion does not lead to consider to invest the appraisal of that degree of reality, on that of other abstract possibilities, fictions and those abstract possibilities don't have the same degree of reality.
I told you there is something more infections, in some respect the fictional possibilities, now let's present the same fundamental nature of in determination as vague Adam, to get back to the case of the heroes of novels, the fact that we can more or less easily, but we can enumerate the predicate in their notions, we can enumerate as predicate in their notions, this fact rules of then being not possible individuals, in the way sense, but existential individuals, that's something important, and the fact that it may involve real individuals transposed into a fiction, and direction, in no way impacts the degree of reality.
because projection based on the readers knowledge do not belong to this system of science, expressing fictional possibilities, but the heroes of novel I’m not particular as vague individuals, but determined by the system of facts to which they belong, I can say a few words, the vague Adam, for instance or seize on crossing the Rubicon River, and so on the big Adam is conceived by eliminating the predicate, that expressed his determination in the world.
but to the contrary, the heroes a hero of a novel is of course insufficiently determine it to the world, but he is determined all the same by the rudimentary system he belongs to, so the abstraction has another meaning for those two features, taking the novels narrative dimension into account is the very simple saying, that the story presupposes that the same series include things in certain way, that they exclude their simultaneous existence.
we know that this is the meaning of the famous definition given by Leibniz for compatibility, so in this perspective, all by rudimentary maintained by the possibility articulated in a fictional story, take on a very special meaning, the express something about the capacity compressibility relationships, typical of the structure of the world.
so they are not compatible with our world, but as a system and by a system consisting in a story, they have something to do with compatibility, it is inside the novel itself, it is almost a compulsive system, this would be very important, they are not compatibility with our world, but they have something to do with can possibility.
they have something to do with some possibility, of course these this straight profoundly change is the meaning of fictional possibility, the fact, that it is not but of the system that makes sense the creative world, does not mean that each remains abstract as a big Adam.
that it is practically organized as another possible world, fiction please particularly organized at another possible world, which is not quite important that I wanted to tell you for general culture about the ashtray last week, I told you this is a very important novel in the history of modern time in Europe.
the ashtray is a very often designed as a novel of novels, the first great fictional novels, the actually, I can't tell you about the story because there are several stories involved in it, and only have something in common, this is the story of love, of course, and I wanted to tell you that it is it has no importance not at all it is not a good reason, not to talk about this, this love story is between a woman a strip and a young boy or the perfect, of course as a as a young boy name is celadon, and I was wondering does it mean something to you.
this name comes from this book, that is the reason why I wanted to mention it, his name's celadon in Europe use for laws Chinese faces, this name gone from this book, that was the reason why I want to tell you a few words about last three the novels in you wrote, on this base two perspectives those open them, as we must distinguish based on the text we have quoted between first the theory of fiction.
that is to say this is it sort of general politics that they render possible, it will be my first point next time, on these model developed by Leibniz, German philosophers during the eighteenth century, and I have already general politics aesthetic view on novel, I will presented you into you next time.
the second for the some extent, it's the most important concerned the lesson that we must drew regarding the use of fictions in rational works, I am just going to present you other text, I would study on Wednesday, not next week but on Wednesday, text belonging to the history of aesthetics, and as a politics of novel, the most important author here is a German one.
his name is Cartesian vote, this is the definition of time by Leibniz is you see it this relative, they can possibility of things that are not compatible simultaneously, but you see time is nothing else than some kind of order nothing else, and this is Wolff, you have to know him golf played a very important law in the birth of German philosophy in Europe during the eighteenth century.
e was the school teacher of German y, Wollf was a school teacher of German y, and we refer to Wollf who wrote an important book, rational thoughts own god the world and the existence of the soul of human beings, we will see later. Wolff is always referring to Leibniz, but as I would show you that one salt positions or not as shook to assays of Leibniz.
so for instance, this kind of affinity is this kind of link between the system of facts, which makes a novel and the relations of compatibility which make a will, this link is considered as crucial central and of use by birth, Leibniz does not take the things as easy, you will see that Leibniz this is more the paradox than the solution, of course in contemporary series of fictions.
it's very obvious define fiction as a possible world, but Leibniz who invented the modern theories of possible worlds, consider it as something quite evidence, we'll see next week, so I guess you have questions.